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    One-Sided Demands or Mutual Needs? Combination of Needs and Parent-Child Choices in Inter-Generational Cohabitation
    TAO Tao, ZHONG Yuqi, HUANG Jingyi
    Chinese Journal of Sociology    2022, 42 (6): 214-240.  
    Abstract2203)   HTML58)    PDF(pc) (2222KB)(413)       Save
    Changes in family living arrangements have accompanied China’s transition to modernization. The aim of this study is to explore the choice mechanism driven by the needs of both parents and children behind the seemingly homogeneous inter-generational cohabitation of different families. Based on the data from the 2018 China Elderly Longitudinal Social Survey, this study delves into the need and choice mechanisms of elderly parents and adult children living together, explores the heterogeneity in inter-generational cohabitation and the inter- generational interactions under ever changing inter-generational relationships. It further analyses the two dimensions of gender and birth order of adult children in different types of inter-generational cohabitation. The results show that, in terms of intergenerational co-living needs, cooperative cohabitation occupies the primary position in China, followed by nurturing cohabitation based on pure offspring needs, and then supportive cohabitation based on pure parental needs. The proportion of alienated cohabitation in which both generations are not in need is the least. The main theme of inter-generational cohabitation in China today is a shift in the centre of gravity and a strong emphasis on reciprocity. There are differences in the logic of inter-generational reciprocity between urban and rural areas. Rural parents place more emphasis on economic needs while urban parents place more emphasis on living needs. The demand of children in both rural and urban is led by housing needs. In terms of inter-generational cohabitation mechanisms, sons are still the preferred choice for inter-generational cohabitation. However, daughters are more likely to take on the responsibility of supporting parents, especially in rural area. Younger siblings in rural areas are more likely to enjoy help from their parents in inter-generational cohabitation and are also more likely to take on the responsibility of supporting parents. In short, change and continuity have always presented in Chinese society, and tradition and modernity are both rooted in Chinese family life.
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    Window of Time and Trauma of Time: The Temporal Effect of Left-Behind Experience on Subjective Well-Being
    LIU Zhijun, YANG Shuai, WANG Yan
    Chinese Journal of Sociology    2022, 42 (6): 188-213.  
    Abstract2162)   HTML45)    PDF(pc) (2532KB)(399)       Save
    Existing studies have mainly focused on the current and short-or medium-term effects of left-behind experience, but lacked sufficient attention to the long-term and time-window effects, as well as the repair of negative effects of the experience. From the perspective of life course, based on the 2018 China Labor Force Dynamics Survey(CLDS), this study analyzes the time effect of the childhood left- behind experience on the subjective well-being of adulthood in four aspects: cumulative length of left-behind, length after left-behind experience terminated, stages of being left-behind and different guardianship of left-behind. The results show that first, the experience of left-behind has a long-term negative impact on the subjective well-being of individuals, and shows a “double time effect”, that is, on the one hand, the longer the cumulative time of left-behind, the greater the negative impact in adulthood; on the other hand, the increase of the length of the post-left-behind period does not correspond to the increase of subjective well-being in adulthood. Second, the negative impact shows a reversed increasing characteristic of left-behind at age of junior middle school < at age of primary school < at age of preschool, indicating that the preschool stage is the“key window” affecting adulthood most critically. Third, regardless of the stage, single-parent and grandparent custody present negative impact on individuals with the former worse than the later. Finally, the propensity score matching method applied in the paper verifies the robustness of the impact of childhood left-behind experiences at all stages on individual subjective well-being in adulthood. This study confirms the enduring effects of childhood experiences on subjective well-being in adulthood, and reveals the duration effect, time window effect, and guardianship effect of childhood experiences.
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    Rebuilding Smiles: The Production of Knowledge-in-Practice in the Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment
    LIU Dan, HUANG Yingying
    Chinese Journal of Sociology    2022, 42 (6): 132-159.  
    Abstract2047)   HTML42)    PDF(pc) (2802KB)(280)       Save
    This study of practical medical sociology analyzes the process as well as specific aspects of practical knowledge production in the treatment of cleft lip and palate (CLP). Based on our fieldwork and in-depth interviews, this paper finds that as the meta-theme of cleft lip and palate treatment normalization is the goal to“create a normal face and reconstruct a normal life” for CLP patients. The sequential treatment method for cleft lip and palate in China, influenced by the western concepts, is a gradually localised “standard” treatment paradigm that stipulates the necessity of intervention in the socialization process of child development in addition to the treatment in order to rebuild normal life in the future. This normative therapeutic paradigm generates different aspects in the specific practice process. On the one hand, centering on facial reconstructive surgeries, Knowledge-in-Practice of CLP treatment aims to build normal faces for the patients. It facilitates two body techniques in situated medical treatment - nursing massage and language therapy. These two techniques jointly shape the patients’ visible body and functional body and thereby “normalise” patients. On the other hand, as the treatment progresses and CLP children grow, the goal of“reconstructing a normal life” becomes prominent in the intervention. It embodies the other aspect of knowledge- in-Practice of CLP treatment: “normal life” means to follow the development trajectories of ordinary children but also explore the bodily values of individuals with CLP. It encourages CLP children to cultivate individual specialties and win peer competitions in order to copy with the strong uncertainty of the future of CLP individuals. During the processes of routinizing treatment into everyday life and medicalizing parenting practice, the application of normative medical knowledge extends from medical settings to social life, and medical knowledge transforms into socialized knowledge as well. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between medical knowledge and practice, and between biology and society. It reevaluates the multi-dimensional, dynamic and value-related therapeutic practice so as to reflect on the action logic of each subject behind the treatment and the process of knowledge production. Finally, it enriches the empirical research on“marginalized bodies” from the perspective of medical sociology.
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    Funeral Xiangsheng and the Operation of Social Relationship Among the Civilians in Beijing and Tianjin in the Period of the Republic of China
    LI Xiaodong
    Chinese Journal of Sociology    2022, 42 (6): 160-187.  
    Abstract1938)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (3018KB)(175)       Save
    With the increase of urban population mobility in modern China, it is necessary to discuss in depth the changes in the operational mode of social relations that are based on the different patterns of association. During the period of the Republic of China, Beijing and Tianjin were the biggest cities in northern China, and the scale of population movement was large, resulting in fewer blood related relatives than strangers and outsiders in social relations among the people. At the same time, under the influence of Manchus’ lifestyle, the urban culture of Beijing and Tianjin still attached great importance to the ritual gradation based on blood relation, manifested in stipulating everyone’s status and behavior standards in accordance with blood relation ethics. By analyzing funeral crosswalks ( Xiangsheng) that reflected the urban culture of Beijing and Tianjin of the period, this paper argues that due to the dominant presence of migrant population, the pressure of family opinions gave way to the more tolerant community public opinions. Facing the shortage of blood relatives to carry out the normative procedure of ritual gradation, people began to embrace outsiders and strangers into the core circle of differentiated association of their mourning system. In this process, the operational logic of social relationship relied on “the distinction between righteousness and gains”, reflected as “friendship” and “taking advantage”. In the absence of blood relatives, the“friendship” based on“righteousness” enabled outsiders and strangers to enter the core circle of the differential mode of association, while “taking advantage” meant not only the pursuit of self-interest, but also the process where in the outsiders and strangers could adjust their positions appropriate to the differential mode of association.
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    Dialect Distance and Peer Effect of Crime among Urban Migrants:An Empirical Analysis Based on Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Dongguan
    ZHANG Ping, XU Zhewei
    Chinese Journal of Sociology    2022, 42 (5): 181-206.  
    Abstract1636)   HTML80)    PDF(pc) (3133KB)(443)       Save
    In the process of rapid urbanization, the unprecedented population movement brings about regional cultural collision, driving economic growth while profoundly affecting social harmony. Based on the public data of the China Judgments Online, the Dictionary of Chinese Dialects, and the 2017 China Migrants Dynamics Survey, this paper takes Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Dongguan, three cities with a net inflow of over 10 million people, as examples for empirical analysis. By choosing dialect distance as a proxy variable of cultural differences, we investigate how it affects the hometown gang criminal behavior of the urban migrant population. The empirical results show that there is a significant positive correlation between dialect distance and hometown gang crime among the migrant population. For each additional unit of dialect distance, the likelihood of migrants choosing hometown fellows as accomplices in crime increases by 8.3%. Mechanism analysis shows that the peer effect formed by dialect distance is a main factor for the increase of gang crime among migrants. Under the same conditions, the greater the migration distance, the greater the cultural gap between the migrants and the local population. Specific to social networks, it is reflected that migrants tend to trust members of the hometown group rather than the locals, which leads relatively closed clusters of community, enforcing the peer effect and increasing the possibility of participating in gang crimes. From the perspective of dialect distance, this study quantifies the impact of cultural conflicts on the harmony and stability of urban society in the process of urbanization, enriches the theoretical exploration of culture influences on migrant crime and its governance, and has certain implications for promoting a new type of people-oriented urbanization.
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    Ethical Life without Virtue: Hegel on the Ideal of Modern Society
    CHEN Tao
    Chinese Journal of Sociology    2022, 42 (5): 95-123.  
    Abstract1513)   HTML45)    PDF(pc) (3057KB)(421)       Save
    Hegel’s concept of “Sittlichkeit” can help us to clarify the ideal of modern society and the challenge it poses to traditional ethical practices. By comparing it with the ancient concept of “” (ethos), we are able to see the dynamics and ideas of modern society. In Aristotle, “” constitutes a way of life that is constructed by means of customs, laws, and polity to shape human desires and appetites. Laws, institutions and customs are never self-sufficient and complete for the ethical space between natural virtues and intellectual virtues. They are fundamentally depended on human virtues. In contrast, in Hegel’s “Sittlichkeit”, modern ethical life is able to incorporate our various desires into system as “activities” by means of complete and rational laws and institutions. In principle, modern men do not need to be highly virtuous to pacify and transform their desires and win the recognition of others and freedom. By simply obeying laws and institutions, this could be achieved. However, while modern society can offer us economic, social and political independence and freedom, it cannot provide us with a place to live that is a truly comparable to a home. What we need to think is that whether we have other possibilities besides the rationalization and perfection of laws and institutions. For us, a nation with a strong ethical tradition, the future still depends on whether we can find and revive those ethical traits from our own tradition to steer rationalised laws and institutions to create a communal life worthy of desire.
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